Plyometrics in the Sand

As we continue to dive into the intricacies of plyometrics, we are going to come across a wide variety of scenarios when training the stretch shortening cycle (SSC). One of the most important variables is the surface on which the training takes place! Plyos in the sand highlight certain qualities of the SSC, and play down the effects of others. 

Why would you want to be jumping and landing on a softer surface in the first place? Well, the first benefit is the reduced impact on the joints compared to landing on hard surfaces. If one of the goals of the session is to protect the athlete from the rigors of hard landings, while still accomplishing quality work, plyos in the sand does that. Mirzaei and company looked at muscle soreness and how plyometrics in the sand affected it. Their study mentioned  that the sand work resulted in decreased muscle soreness, which in turn allowed for more work to be accomplished. (Mirzaei, 2014)

But coach Nate! What about the increased time spent in the amortization phase of the SSC, and the subsequent loss of elastic energy stored because of the increased time spent on the ground when stretching the muscle!?? Don’t worry my readers, it all depends on the goal of the session! The SSC in totality is one of the most powerful mechanisms we humans have that allow us to exert extreme amounts of force. If you take away the ability of one component of the SSC, in this case the eccentric component, the concentric component has to do some work to get the same task completed. This is similar to the max strength phase of training. The movement is slower, the benefit of the SSC is blunted, and a greater emphasis is placed in the concentric ability of the muscle. In the same study I referenced earlier, Mirzaei and company also mentioned that a 6 week plyometric program completed in the sand resulted in increased vertical, static, and long jump with increases in maximal strength, and decreased sprint times (Mirzaei, 2014).  All good things right? But, the study was completed on untrained individuals, and many of those adaptations could be accredited to neural adaptation, which increases the efficiency of the body completing the task. 

In my professional opinion, I do not have a problem with plyometric sand training. It is another stimulus you can expose an athlete to that still promotes quality training while protecting the body from hard landing. As long as the reason behind this training is sound, go ahead! If you goal is to focus on decreasing the amortization phase and getting off the ground as quickly as possible, then the sand is not the place to be. 


-Thank you for your time! If you have any questions please let us know!


Coach Nate Garcia 

nate@tpstrength.com

tim@tpstrength.com

scott@tpstrength.com 

914-486-7678

Instagram: tp_strength

Reference

Mirzaei, B., Norasteh, A. A., & Asadi, A. (2013). Neuromuscular adaptations to plyometric training: Depth jump vs. countermovement jump on sand. Sport Sciences for Health, 9(3), 145-149. doi:10.1007/s11332-013-0161-x





Concurrent Training: Aerobic and Strength

The active stereotype for the weightlifting community is that cardio is the devil that must be avoided at all costs to ensure the best gains, and to an extent, they would be correct. However, just like any training plan, if the variables of the training are manipulated appropriately then you can see benefits on both sides of the spectrum. 

We have discussed the energy systems with some detail in previous posts. If you haven’t had the chance to review them, now we be a good time to scroll down and take a look. We have three primary energy systems (phosphagen, anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic glycolysis) and all three of those systems play into each other and we use all three systems everyday. In my opinion, to neglect one system in totality is a poor decision and it can lead to a plateau in training effects or even detraining. If you have a goal in mind that you are training for, then your training focus should aim to accomplish that goal. A first baseman does not have to be able to run 1600m as fast as possible, but they do require the ability to play 162 games in roughly 170 days. 

Aerobic training is not just running miles on end and puking from exhaustion. It serves a greater purpose than bettering the ability to run long distance, it is a pillar in the ability to recover. When planned appropriately, cardiovascular training can facilitate strength and power advancements for the strength and power athletes. If that is the case, what does appropriate planning look like? It depends! If you are participating in a power dominant event (baseball, long jump, 100m sprint) training in the aerobic zone should be accomplished at different points in your annual plan. The further away from the  competitive season, the more aerobic based training you can include. Also, including aerobic conditioning in the middle of a competitive season can be appropriate in order to facilitate active recovery between events. These particular athletes require low level aerobic conditioning (50-70% BPM of HRmax) that does not interfere with strength improvements. Not only does this modality not interfere with strength training, but the athlete was able to simultaneously improve cardiovascular and strength abilities. The time between these two sessions was a key variable, and the overall consensus was a minimum of 6 hours between training bouts of strength and aerobic conditioning. 

Keeping the goal of training in mind, a stimulus that promotes a person’s recovery ability is something that cannot be ignored. The metabolic adaptation that occurs with aerobic training is an adaptation that lasts much longer than the adaptations of power and speed training, so once a foundation is established, it does not take much to maintain this adaptation. The improved cardiovascular ability facilitates blood flow to working musculature, the more blood that is pumped through your skeletal muscles, the greater the ability to resynthesis necessary energy substrates needed for explosive movements, improvements in fat utilization as an energy source so that carbohydrate utilization can be reserved for highly intense work, and increased clearance of biochemical stressors associated with strength training. I can write a book on the benefits of aerobic training, but to see advancements in your training goal, variables such as: frequency, duration, intensity, and modality must be planned carefully. 

Looking at this topic from the other side of the training spectrum, the long distance athletes that also strength train. Essentially, the training considerations of the strength/power athlete flip. The endurance athlete can benefit from strength training as long as it is planned appropriately. These athletes often see immediate improvements in performance because they are often not exposed to strength training. These improvements are due to the body's improved ability to absorb and redistribute force when running, and prevent injuries. Strength training the endurance athletes is not something I have spent a lot of time doing, but avoiding hypertrophy to keep the necessary body composition for the sport, and not spending too much time in the weight room to prevent unwarranted soreness, are two general rules I would use when training these athletes. 

I touched on the idea of plateauing and detraining in the introduction. This is because the body requires a different stimulus every at certain points to allow for recovery. Even the elite powerlifters do not lift heavy weight (90% 1RM <) all year round. Their body would never be allowed to recover and would never have to adapt to a new stimulus. I will discuss this topic in greater detail in the future. 

In conclusion, aerobic conditioning can do wonders for athletes and non-athletes alike. Rather than avoiding aerobic conditioning, it should be planned for accordingly in order to enhance your body's ability to accomplish the goals you have set for yourself. Recovery is just as important as training, and the better your body is at recovering, the greater the demand you can place on your training. 


-Thank you for your time! If you have any questions please let us know!

Coach Nate Garcia 

nate@tpstrength.com

tim@tpstrength.com

scott@tpstrength.com 

914-486-7678

Instagram: tp_strength